2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

18 Best Free 3D Animation Software

Animation is one of the most prominent visual art forms of the modern era. An animator needs to understand the composition of motion and rendering tools as animation requires a profound knowledge about 2D and 3D models. The main point is to convey the message and have the aptitude to tell stories.

In this article, we offer you an overview of the 3D animation programs available in the market. In case you are more inclined to traditional programs, we have included 2D animation programs.

Here is a compilation of 15 best free options of animation software programs, including 2D and 3D animations for Windows and MAC.

18 Best 3D Animation Software with Motion Capture and Keyframe Animation

Nowadays most animation software is compatible with multiple devices. PCs, with operating systems such as Windows and Linux, are compatible with most of the best animation software. Here are some of the animation software solutions that are compatible with PCs.

Blender is a free and open-source 3D animation software. It consists of all the main tools required for 3D animation, i.e., modelling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing, motion tracking, and video editing. It also provides options for 2D animation pipeline.

Blender includes object tracking features as well as tools for panning, tracking tilting and rotating the camera to degrees. Moreover, it provides a Python API so that animators can seamlessly customize their UI for easy navigation while working on projects. 

Blender has been created in such a manner that both beginners and expert animators can work on it effortlessly. 

Key Features:

  1. High-end production path tracer for realistic rendering
  2. Designed for powerful animation
  3. Industry-standard realistic simulation
  4. Customizable user interface.


  1. Blender is apt for animation and has quality rigging, skinning, fluid simulation, smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, and match moving features
  2. Video editing and composition are also be performed seamlessly in Blender
  3. Develop video games, especially with the help of Blender’s integrated game engine 
  4. Perhaps one of the biggest pros of Blender is its addons: this software is seamlessly customizable. 


  1. With so many incredible features, Blender can sometimes be overwhelming 
  2. Like other advanced animation software, it takes some learning and training when it comes to getting the hang of Blender. 

Pricing: Blender is a free and open source 3D animation software.

Platforms: Windows, macOS X. 

Powtoon is a web-based animation video and presentation software, which provides animators a cloud-based platform on which they can create animations for several different purposes such as online advertisements, presentations, informative videos, video guides, tutorials, and manuals.

This 3D animation maker online has a user-friendly interface with the help of which animations can be created and shared easily. It also provides features to create, save, and share animated videos with the help of Google Drive. Powtoon provides various presets and tools such as clips, images, voice-overs, soundtracks, and sound effects to assist animators in different projects.

Key Features:

  1. Download completed videos as MP4
  2. Privacy Control
  3. 24x7 Priority Support
  4. Commercial Use Rights
  5. Third-Party Resell Rights
  6. Upload Custom Fonts
  7. Advanced Animation
  8. Royalty-Free Libraries


  1. Easy to use
  2. Produces very professional looking videos.
  3. Excellent tool for presentations, automatic storage, easy handling
  4. Easy to use
  5. A lot of tools and features available.


  1. The free version can be updated to include new features
  2. Interface can be worked upon further

Pricing: Powtoon pricing has a free plan and four paid yearly subscription options: Starter at about ₹ per month, Pro at about ₹ per month, Pro+ at about ₹ per month, and Agency at about ₹ per month.

Platforms: Windows, Android, iPhone/iPad, Mac, Web-based

This is one of the most exciting 3D animation software available on Steam game engine. It lets animators create a movie inside the game engine. This free animation software uses all the different assets present in the game. So that the assets of the game can be configured by SFM in the movie and vice versa.

Key Features:

  1. Instant rendering and preview
  2. Completely free to download
  3. Manages entire workflow needed to make a movie into one single system
  4. Virtual movie set with lighting, characters, props and cameras


  1. Easier to learn
  2. Effects and lighting are already there and easy to set up
  3. Has a steam workshop


  1. Software needs to be updated as it is based on the source engine
  2. Since it is a bit application, it is prone to crashes
  3. Effects, maps, props and characters are of low-resolution
  4. Limited support and online guides

Source Filmfare Pricing: It’s a free 3D animation software.

Platforms: Windows (Steam)

3D animation software Maya is one of the leading animation software in the market with industry-standard animation quality. It is often used in commercial movies to add visual effects and animation. Although Maya requires tutorials and courses, it is straightforward once the basics are mastered. Autodesk Maya 3D animation software can be used to create animated movies, TV series, video games, and shorts. 

Key Features:

  1. Bifrost for procedural effects
  2. Ready-to-use graphs
  3. Bifrost Fluids
  4. Interactive hair grooming
  5. Deep adaptive liquid simulation
  6. Bifrost Ocean Simulation System
  7. Maya n Cloth
  8. Bullet Physics
  9. Cached Playback


  1. Maya has a free-form approach to 3D modeling: instead of using only modifiers, you can apply modeling layers. 
  2. There are great poly tools in Maya that make organic modeling, character rigging and animation super-intuitive and practically limitless. 
  3. It also provides Paint Effects, which lets you make 3D shapes by drawing free hand. 
  4. Fast and seamless rendering is also one of the biggest pros in Maya.


  1. The dreaded learning curve of 3D. It’s here in Maya, too. 
  2. The node editor can be cumbersome to work with at times
  3. Scene hierarchy needs more work. 

3D Animation Software Price: Maya is free for students and educators. For other animators, Maya also offers a free trial for these plans; Monthly at ₹11,, for 1 year at ₹87, and for 3 years at ₹2,36,

Platforms: Windows, macOS X, RHEL, and Fedora.

Toon Boom Harmony is a user-friendly 3D animation software for beginners and pros that helps create art pieces, storyboards and short animated clips. Although the software might look complex in the beginning, it provides a gamut of different tools to explore creative roads. It offers vectors as well as bitmap tools for projects.

Key Features:

  1. Revolutionary vector and bitmap drawing technology - Brush Engine
  2. Advanced colour palettes and paint options
  3. 2D and 3D integration to make professional animation
  4. Cut-out animation tools
  5. Traditional paperless animation.


  1. It provides a plethora of different drawing and animation tools
  2. Recording and audio editing is not possible


  1. Due to the multitude of tools and features, Toon Boom can take some time and training to get used to
  2. Glitches occur if your computer software is not updated enough.

3D Animation Software Price: Toon Boom harmony provides 21 days free trial after which, it offers three annual plans - Harmony Essentials at about ₹ per month, Harmony Advanced at ₹ per month, and Harmony Premium at ₹ per month.

Platforms: Windows, macOS X, Web.

Best Free 3D Animation Software for Mac

MAC is considered to be the ideal device for animation due to its robust configuration and seamless rendering capabilities. In fact, some of the top Hollywood film production houses use 3D animation software for MAC for their animation requirements. Here are some free animation software solutions for MAC / iOS.

K-3D is a 3D-modelling and animation software that combines built-in plugins with a visualization pipeline architecture to provide a flexible yet powerful platform for animation artists. This free 3D animation software allows users to create unique combinations in their work.

K-3D offers several features to make an artist’s work as easy as possible.

Key Features:

  1. An advanced undo/redo function
  2. Properties that can be adjusted interactively
  3. A node-based visualization pipeline.


  1. It provides a robust pipeline architecture
  2. Provides a plethora of inbuilt plug-ins


  1. UI can be improved upon
  2. New updates would enhance the experience.

Pricing: It’s a free 3D animation software for Mac.

Platforms: Windows, macOS, source code (for developers)

VideoScribe by Sparkol is one of the best whiteboard animation software programs available in the market. VideoScribe 3D animation software for Mac offers users efficient tools to create, upload, and edit videos with the help of its cloud-based services that can be accessed from anywhere.

Key Features:

  1. Premium images
  2. Import music & fonts
  3. Work offline
  4. Save project online
  5. Record voice-overs
  6. Image library
  7. Publish to web
  8. Video resolution options
  9. Royalty-free music collection


  1. Every option gives you access to the full program
  2. Option to purchase the program outright
  3. Simple five-step interface with many DIY features
  4. Unlimited downloads, hosting, and creation
  5. Extensive library of audio and visual elements including soundtracks


  1. Features are basic
  2. The interface is limited to whiteboard style videos drawn with a hand
  3. Watermark cannot be removed in the free version

3D Animation Software Price: It offers a free 7-day trial, after which it offers three plans; Monthly Plan for ₹, Yearly Plan at about ₹, Quarterly Plan at ₹

Platforms: Web-based, iOS, Android, Windows, macOS X

Biteable is one of the most user-friendly and straightforward 3D animated video creator software that can be used for several purposes. With Biteable, animators get tools for adding colours, texts, photos and sounds in videos in a drag-and-drop template.

Key Features:

  1. Provides a specialty template for animating logos, creating high-quality presentations and slideshows with incorporated video elements 
  2. 85, footage clips available in its database 
  3. Share projects on YouTube, Facebook, Twitter 


  1. Provides customizable branding options
  2. Access to its extensive media library
  3. Social sharing options
  4. Offers templates and text overlays.


  1. Doesn’t offer collaboration tools
  2. Drag & drop options aren’t available
  3. Lack of privacy options 
  4. No voice-over or background score options available

Pricing and Plans:

There are two primary plans available for Biteable. The free version allows you to create five projects for monthly use. On the other hand, a premium plan is about ₹ a month, offering the option of HD quality shares and unlimited uploads.

Platforms: Online, macOS X, Windows

KeyShot is an easy-to-use 3D rendering and 3D animation software that allows animation artists to create from simple models to sophisticated and visually stunning projects. One of its best features is that it provides real-time 3D rendering, which displays results as soon as it is finished. This decreases the time taken to create and complete the project.

Apart from this, KeyShot provides several other features for animation and 3D rendering.

Key Features:

  1. Tools for both 2D and 3D animation
  2. It comes with HDRI lighting for enhanced illumination and adjustment of an object or a scene 
  3. Virtual camera control for the simulation of physical camera behaviour
  4. Dynamic virtual mapping for the simulation of real physical appearance of a site
  5. Focused caustics to ensure objects and scenes are suitably lit.


  1. Suitable for creating fast, accurate and amazing visuals.
  2. Featuring a real-time 3D rendering workflow


  1. Doesn’t provide in-built templates  

Platforms: Cloud, SaaS, Web, macOS X Windows

Pricing: KeyShot is an entirely free animation software.

OpenToonz is a free and open source animation software that provides animators all the necessary tools for 2D animation. As it is open source, it lets developers and expert animators customise the software to suit their requirements.

Key Features:

  1. Scan different types of images within the product
  2. Produce affected incident light
  3. Create wavy distortion
  4. Change picture styles


  1. Provides all the necessary tools for 2D animation
  2. Being an open source software, it can be customised to suit the requirement of users.


  1. The features and terminology that OpenToonz uses can take time to learn

Platforms: Windows, mac OS X

Pricing: OpenToonz is completely free and is open source 3D animation software.

Best Free 2D Animation Software

Before 3D animation became popular commercially, due to the brilliantly executed animation in movies like Toy Story, Ice Age, and The Incredibles, the animation was usually 2D.

In fact, some of the most popular children's cartoons such as Mickey Mouse, Aladdin, Snow White, etc were made using traditional 2D animation techniques. Hence, 2D has become an integral part of animation. Given below are some of the top 2D Software Solutions.

Animaker is one of the most user-friendly free 3D animation software solutions. The best part about the software is its drag-and-drop UI. It can help animators create different types of animations with its modules extending to advertisements, manuals, and tutorial videos. 

Moreover, it provides an extensive database of templates and animated objects. It isn’t limited to 3D animation but also offers tools to create 2D cartoons, infographics, and whiteboards.

It also provides additional features with the business account, which also contains the option to create minute-long videos.

Key Features:

  1. Whiteboard video maker
  2. Infographic maker
  3. Massive library of characters and templates
  4. Drag-and-drop user interface


  1. It has a wide variety of infographics to use
  2. Drag-and drop interface, 
  3. Easy to customize and navigate around
  4. It has ample tools for creating an animation
  5. Pre-designed templates make it easy to narrate storyboards to the audience.


  1. Sometimes, the pre-viewing makes the video lag
  2. Character animations could be made more varied.

Pricing: Animaker provides a free plan and three annual plans - Personal at about ₹ per month, Startup at about ₹ per month and Business at about ₹ per month.

Platform: Cloud, SaaS, Web

Synfig Studio is a free and one of the best 2D animation software for beginners as well as seasoned animators. At present, it provides two versions for free download; the stable version and the development version. The stable version offers all the essential features required for basic projects.

On the other hand, the development version provides some state-of-the-art experimental features for those who want to try their hand at innovative tools.

Key Features:

  1. Multiple layers of content
  2. Creation of cut-out animations from bitmap images
  3. Enables addition and syncronising of narration and background score to the video.


  1. It offers more than 50 layers to make advanced or straightforward animation, so you don’t need to worry about its limitation though it is free to use.


  1. Few tutorials are available in the market to start making animation for beginners.

Price:  It’s a free 2D animation software.

Compatibility: Windows, Linux, and macOS X

Pencil 2D is another open-source and free animation software which is ideal for bitmap and vector animations. Pencil 2D lets animators create their animations from scratch, with the help of pencil, brush, colour and pen tools.

One of the best features of Pencil 2D is that its user interface is intuitive and minimalistic. Anyone, whether a beginner or an expert, can easily be able to understand and implement the features and tools it provides.

Key Features:

  1. It provides useful tools such as layers, a keyframe, colours, onion skinning, workplace toolbars and panels making it an efficient suite 
  2. Pencil 2D delivers a clean and orderly timeline layout where new frames can be created seamlessly on layers
  3. It enables switching of raster and vector workflows 
  4. The software provides cross-platform compatibility.


  1. It offers tutorials in multiple languages, such as English, Spanish and Portuguese 
  2. It provides a clutter-free user environment to work on 
  3. Animators can easily switch between vector and raster workflows. 


  1. It doesn’t provide a shape tool through which animators can draw shapes.

Price: It’s a free 2D animation software

Compatibility: Windows, Linux, and macOS X

Free 3D Animation Software for Android

Animation has even transcended to smartphone devices. Today there are a number of android animation application software solutions available, with the help of which, users can create simple animated sequences. Here are some of the best 3D animation software for Android:

Toontastic is one of the top 3D animation software applications designed by Google for Android and iOS users. It is a useful application that allows users to draw and animate on their mobile devices with ease. Its user-friendly interface lets animators provide motion to the characters and objects to tell a story.

Key Features:

  1. 3D drawing tools for designing characters
  2. Photos and custom characters
  3. Soundtrack with dozens of built-in songs
  4. Three Story Arcs for digital storytelling (Short Story, Classic, & Science Report)
  5. Video sharing option of photo library to share with family and friends


  1. It is FREE and easy to use
  2. Encourages imaginative play
  3. App is exciting, engaging and motivating for elementary age children
  4. Allows to share story online
  5. Unlimited choices to animate


  1. Hard to record in groups
  2. Mood music overpowers character’s voices
  3. No pre-planning or brainstorming prior to creating story. Animating the characters and editing needs performance, some may find it difficult
  4. No text tools provided.

Pricing: It is free and easy-to use 3D animation software for Android.

Platforms: Android and iOS

Animation Desk is another 3D animation software for Android that enables animators to create cartoons and animated stories on smartphones. It is a user-friendly software application where users can seamlessly create animation videos from scratch. It lets animators create artificially rendered graphics videos, PSD layers. 

One of its best features of this app is to allow the import external clips and photos to your project as a layer layered form.

Key Features:

  1. More than 45 different brushes help to make unique animation in various forms.
  2. Lets users turn drawings into animations on their iPads 
  3. Specially designed keeping students and amateurs in mind
  4. Supports four frame rates (or FPS, frames-per-second) from 3FPS to 24FPS and includes pre-loaded dynamic or static backgrounds
  5. Optimized for use with Adonit, Ten One Design, and Hex3 styluses.

Pricing: It’s 3D animation software free for Android

Platforms: Apart from Android, it is also available on iOS, Mac, and Windows

Best Free 3D Animation Software for PC

  • Aurora 3D Animation Maker

Use Aurora 3D Animation Maker for drawing stunning animations. Manage the length, playback and speed of all your animations with this best 3D animation software for PC and mobile. GIFs, image sequencing or designing web banner, you can perform all these design tasks successfully with Aurora 3D drawing software.

This 3D animation software for PC further helps add amazing special effects to text and logos. Professionals use the best animation software for PC to design web pages, edit videos and give limitless particle effects to their works.

Key features of Aurora 3D animation Software:

  1. Key frame animation for controlling different aspects of animation.
  2. Particle effect for adding splendid effects to animated videos.
  3. Internal animation style through actions such as fade, swing, rotate, beat and pulse.
  4. 3D manipulator for controlling the positioning of objects.
  5. Animation templates for drawing 3D title animation.


  1. Quickly create eye catching animations even if you are not trained at using any 3D animation software.
  2. Intuitive interface that offers multiple templates for creating animations from scratch.
  3. Simple to use and free hand shape tool for giving shapes to objects.
  4. Use the software for multiple purposes such as creating movies, websites or presentations.


  1. Doesn’t support video rendering

Pricing: The price of Aurora 3D animation software depends on the number of units you want and the required features.

Platforms: Windows & Mac OS

Cartoon characters, realistic images, or sci-fi content, you can create all types of animation videos using one of the best 3D animation software for PC, Mixamo. Give life to all your animated video characters in illustrations and graphic art with this 3D animation software.

The software provides simple to use sliders that can be used for speeding up or slowing down animations besides making the animated bodies closed or open in appearance. It also includes features for creating professional-quality Skeletal rigs, illustrations, movies, games, 3D printing characters, etc.

Key features:

  1. Automatic character rigging for uploading custom character.
  2. Motion captured animations for controlling how each motion looks and feels.
  3. Export option for downloading characters in multiple formats.
  4. Requires no coding hassle.


  1. The software is best for quick prototyping or developing production ready assets.
  2. It is easy to create customised characters using the software. 
  3. Rigging tool is very easy to use and offers pretty quick results. 


  1. Not suitable for working on mobile devices.

Pricing: Mixamo is a free 3D animation software that does not require any monthly or yearly subscription.

Platform: Windows and Mac

Adobe After Effects 3D animation software designed to add motion graphics and other kinds of visual effects to videos. You can also add dynamic movement to objects and interesting expressions to make the content livelier.

Adobe After Effects 3D animation software provides built-in advanced tools for giving your video content a rich look and feel such as creating neon signs, simulating objects underwater and removing large objects from any video clip. The motion blur feature of this best animation software for PC is quite useful in giving a realistic feel to video content.

Key Features of Adobe After Effects 3D Animation Software:

  1. Use this animation software for PC to draw complex shapes
  2. It is easy to refine edges with the Roto brush selection
  3. Content aware fill option for removing unwanted parts from a video
  4. Luma matte and make for cutting objects as well as creating a transparent background
  5. Helps position 2D layers in a 3D space


  1. This 3D animation software helps create outstanding transition effects
  2. It is easy to track objects for inserting animations
  3. Adobe After Effects is one of the best 3D animation software for PC, as it integrates well with other Adobe applications.
  4. Precise tools are attached with the platform for developing good quality motion designs.


  1. Timeline interface can be problematic at times.

Platform: Windows 7/10 (bit) and Mac OS version , ,

Price: Adobe After Affects CC is available for ₹ at Techjockey for one user per year.


Q. What is animation?🐥

Animation can be defined as an illusionary effect of motion, that is produced with the help of sketches, images and shift in poses. These images (known as frames) are strung together and changed in succession at an extremely fast pace so that our eyes perceive it as a continuous scene.

Q. What is animation software?💻

Animation software enables artists to create scenes, frame-by-frame, with the help of still images. It is then strung together by the software to create an effect of transitory motion. While traditional animators draw each sketch frame-by-frame, modern animation uses techniques, with which, on image can be modified to transition into the next, smoothly.

Q. How many types of Animation Software are there?🙄

There are two main types of animation software available in the market:

  • 2-dimensional (2D)Software

This type of animation software uses the 2D model. i.e. width and height for animation. In simple words, it gives an impression of a flat, sketch-like scene. This type of animation uses linear shades and shadows, rather than defined and realistic perspectives.

  • 3-dimensional (3D) Software

3D animation software uses advanced techniques, where the scenes and characters are more defined and visually realistic. To put it simply, 3D animation imitates real life rather than a picture or sketch. Animations produced by a 3D animation software has defined shadows, shades and perspectives.

Q. Where is animation software used?🧐😦

Modern advertising uses a number of different animated characters to grab the attention of the audiences. Animation can evoke desired emotions if executed properly. Audiences can be influenced by their emotions. Hence, animation is a great tool for adverts.

  • For entertainment
    • Television programmes and cartoons have increased manifold in the last few decades and especially cater to the younger generation.
    • Animation is also used for short films aimed at older people to tell stories that may have dramatic, comedy or satirical themes.
    • With the help of 2D and 3D animation techniques, it has become easier to produce feature-length animated films and videos.
    • Today animation is used extensively in computer, smartphone, console games and video games.

  • For education and training

Animated sequences often work well within the field of education and training, when sensitive or thought-provoking treatments of a subject are needed.

Q. Can I get free animation software online?💰🚫

Yes. There are a number of free and open-source animation software online.

Источник: [cipsas.com]
, 2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

Multimedia Artists and Animators

How to Become a Multimedia Artist or Animator About this section

Employers look for workers who have a good portfolio of work and strong computer programming skills.

Most multimedia artists and animators need a bachelor’s degree in computer graphics, art, or a related field to develop both an impressive portfolio of work and the strong technical skills that many employers prefer.


Employers typically require a bachelor’s degree, and they look for workers who have a good portfolio and strong technical skills. Multimedia artists and animators typically have a bachelor’s degree in fine arts, computer graphics, animation, or a related field. Programs in computer graphics often include courses in computer science in addition to art courses.

Bachelor’s degree programs in art include courses in painting, drawing, and sculpture. Degrees in animation often require classes in drawing, animation, and film. Many schools have specialized degrees in topics such as interactive media or game design.


Multimedia artists and animators who show strong teamwork and time-management skills can advance to supervisory positions, where they are responsible for one aspect of a visual effects team. Some artists might advance to leadership or directorial positions, such as an art director or producer or director.

Other Experience

Skills in graphics and animation can be honed through self-study. Multimedia artists and animators can develop these skills to enhance their portfolios, which may make it easier to find job opportunities.  

Important Qualities

Artistic talent. Animators and artists should have artistic ability and a good understanding of color, texture, and light. However, they may be able to compensate for artistic shortcomings with better technical skills.

Communication skills. Multimedia artists and animators need to work as part of a team and respond well to criticism and feedback.

Computer skills. Many multimedia artists and animators use computer programs or write programming code to do most of their work.

Creativity. Artists and animators must be able to think creatively to develop original ideas and make them come to life.

Time-management skills. The workdays required by most studio and game design companies can be long, particularly when there are tight deadlines. Artists and animators need to be able to manage their time effectively when a deadline approaches.

Источник: [cipsas.com]
2D&3D Animator v1.5 serial key or number

Computer animation

Art of creating moving images using computers
An example of computer animation which is produced from the "motion capture" technique

Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animationonly refers to moving images. Modern computer animation usually uses 3D computer graphics to generate a two-dimensional picture, although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, and faster real-time renderings. Sometimes, the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes film as well.

Computer animation is essentially a digital successor to stop motion techniques, but using 3D models, and traditional animation techniques using frame-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. Computer-generated animations are more controllable than other, more physically based processes, like constructing miniatures for effects shots, or hiring extras for crowd scenes, because it allows the creation of images that would not be feasible using any other technology. It can also allow a single graphic artist to produce such content without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props. To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer monitor and repeatedly replaced by a new image that is similar to it but advanced slightly in time (usually at a rate of 24, 25, or 30 frames/second). This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures.

For 3D animations, objects (models) are built on the computer monitor (modeled) and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2D figure animations, separate objects (illustrations) and separate transparent layers are used with or without that virtual skeleton. Then the limbs, eyes, mouth, clothes, etc. of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the computer in a process known as tweening or morphing. Finally, the animation is rendered.[1]

For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered after the modeling is complete. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the key frame illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered as needed. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames are transferred to a different format or medium, like digital video. The frames may also be rendered in real time as they are presented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animations transmitted via the internet (e.g. Adobe Flash, X3D) often use software on the end-user's computer to render in real time as an alternative to streaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations.


To trick the eye and the brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object, the pictures should be drawn at around 12 frames per second or faster.[2] (A frame is one complete image.) With rates above frames per second, no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and the brain both process images. At rates below 12 frames per second, most people can detect jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images that detracts from the illusion of realistic movement.[3] Conventional hand-drawn cartoon animation often uses 15 frames per second in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is usually accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. To produce more realistic imagery, computer animation demands higher frame rates.

Films seen in theaters in the United States run at 24 frames per second, which is sufficient to create the illusion of continuous movement. For high resolution, adapters are used.


Early digital computer animation was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the s by Edward E. Zajac, Frank W. Sinden, Kenneth C. Knowlton, and A. Michael Noll.[4] Other digital animation was also practiced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.[5]

In , a computer animation named "Hummingbird" was created by Charles Csuri and James Shaffer.[6]

In , a computer animation called "Kitty" was created with BESM-4 by Nikolai Konstantinov, depicting a cat moving around.[7]

In , a computer animation called "Metadata" was created, showing various shapes.[8]

An early step in the history of computer animation was the sequel to the film Westworld, a science-fiction film about a society in which robots live and work among humans.[9] The sequel, Futureworld (), used the 3D wire-frame imagery, which featured a computer-animated hand and face both created by University of Utah graduates Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.[10] This imagery originally appeared in their student film A Computer Animated Hand, which they completed in [11][12]

Developments in CGI technologies are reported each year at SIGGRAPH,[13] an annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques that is attended by thousands of computer professionals each year.[14] Developers of computer games and 3D video cards strive to achieve the same visual quality on personal computers in real-time as is possible for CGI films and animation. With the rapid advancement of real-time rendering quality, artists began to use game engines to render non-interactive movies, which led to the art form Machinima.

The very first full length computer animated television series was ReBoot,[15] which debuted in September ; the series followed the adventures of characters who lived inside a computer.[16] The first feature-length computer animated film was Toy Story (), which was made by Pixar.[17][18][19] It followed an adventure centered around toys and their owners. This groundbreaking film was also the first of many fully computer-animated movies.[18]

Animation methods[edit]

In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a character's anatomy, which is analogous to a skeleton or stick figure.[20] They are arranged into a default position known as a bind pose, or T-Pose. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars for short. In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal model correspond to the actual bones, but skeletal animation is also used to animate other things, with facial features (though other methods for facial animation exist).[21] The character "Woody" in Toy Story, for example, uses Avars ( in the face alone). The computer doesn't usually render the skeletal model directly (it is invisible), but it does use the skeletal model to compute the exact position and orientation of that certain character, which is eventually rendered into an image. Thus by changing the values of Avars over time, the animator creates motion by making the character move from frame to frame.

There are several methods for generating the Avar values to obtain realistic motion. Traditionally, animators manipulate the Avars directly.[22] Rather than set Avars for every frame, they usually set Avars at strategic points (frames) in time and let the computer interpolate or tween between them in a process called keyframing. Keyframing puts control in the hands of the animator and has roots in hand-drawn traditional animation.[23]

In contrast, a newer method called motion capture makes use of live action footage.[24] When computer animation is driven by motion capture, a real performer acts out the scene as if they were the character to be animated.[25] His/her motion is recorded to a computer using video cameras and markers and that performance is then applied to the animated character.[26]

Each method has its advantages and as of , games and films are using either or both of these methods in productions. Keyframe animation can produce motions that would be difficult or impossible to act out, while motion capture can reproduce the subtleties of a particular actor.[27] For example, in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest, Bill Nighy provided the performance for the character Davy Jones. Even though Nighy doesn't appear in the movie himself, the movie benefited from his performance by recording the nuances of his body language, posture, facial expressions, etc. Thus motion capture is appropriate in situations where believable, realistic behavior and action is required, but the types of characters required exceed what can be done throughout the conventional costuming.


3D computer animation combines 3D models of objects and programmed or hand "keyframed" movement. These models are constructed out of geometrical vertices, faces, and edges in a 3D coordinate system. Objects are sculpted much like real clay or plaster, working from general forms to specific details with various sculpting tools. Unless a 3D model is intended to be a solid color, it must be painted with "textures" for realism. A bone/joint animation system is set up to deform the CGI model (e.g., to make a humanoid model walk). In a process known as rigging, the virtual marionette is given various controllers and handles for controlling movement.[28] Animation data can be created using motion capture, or keyframing by a human animator, or a combination of the two.[29]

3D models rigged for animation may contain thousands of control points — for example, "Woody" from Toy Story uses specialized animation controllers. Rhythm and Hues Studios labored for two years to create Aslan in the movie The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, which had about 1, controllers ( in the face alone). In the film The Day After Tomorrow, designers had to design forces of extreme weather with the help of video references and accurate meteorological facts. For the remake of King Kong, actor Andy Serkis was used to help designers pinpoint the gorilla's prime location in the shots and used his expressions to model "human" characteristics onto the creature. Serkis had earlier provided the voice and performance for Gollum in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy.


A ray-traced 3-D model of a jack inside a cube, and the jack alone below.

Computer animation can be created with a computer and an animation software. Some impressive animation can be achieved even with basic programs; however, the rendering can require much time on an ordinary home computer.[30] Professional animators of movies, television and video games could make photorealistic animation with high detail. This level of quality for movie animation would take hundreds of years to create on a home computer. Instead, many powerful workstation computers are used.[31] Graphics workstation computers use two to four processors, and they are a lot more powerful than an actual home computer and are specialized for rendering. Many workstations (known as a "render farm") are networked together to effectively act as a giant computer,[32] resulting in a computer-animated movie that can be completed in about one to five years (however, this process is not composed solely of rendering). A workstation typically costs $2,, with the more expensive stations being able to render much faster due to the more technologically-advanced hardware that they contain. Professionals also use digital movie cameras, motion/performance capture, bluescreens, film editing software, props, and other tools used for movie animation. Programs like Blender allow for people who can't afford expensive animation and rendering software to be able to work in a similar manner to those who use the commercial grade equipment.[33]

Facial animation[edit]

The realistic modeling of human facial features is both one of the most challenging and sought after elements in computer-generated imagery. Computer facial animation is a highly complex field where models typically include a very large number of animation variables.[34] Historically speaking, the first SIGGRAPH tutorials on State of the art in Facial Animation in and proved to be a turning point in the field by bringing together and consolidating multiple research elements and sparked interest among a number of researchers.[35]

The Facial Action Coding System (with 46 "action units", "lip bite" or "squint"), which had been developed in , became a popular basis for many systems.[36] As early as , MPEG-4 included 68 Face Animation Parameters (FAPs) for lips, jaws, etc., and the field has made significant progress since then and the use of facial microexpression has increased.[36][37]

In some cases, an affective space, the PAD emotional state model, can be used to assign specific emotions to the faces of avatars.[38] In this approach, the PAD model is used as a high level emotional space and the lower level space is the MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAP). A mid-level Partial Expression Parameters (PEP) space is then used to in a two-level structure – the PAD-PEP mapping and the PEP-FAP translation model.[39]


Joy & Heron - A typical example of realistic animation

Realism in computer animation can mean making each frame look photorealistic, in the sense that the scene is rendered to resemble a photograph or make the characters' animation believable and lifelike.[40] Computer animation can also be realistic with or without the photorealistic rendering.[41]

One of the greatest challenges in computer animation has been creating human characters that look and move with the highest degree of realism. Part of the difficulty in making pleasing, realistic human characters is the uncanny valley, the concept where the human audience (up to a point) tends to have an increasingly negative, emotional response as a human replica looks and acts more and more human. Films that have attempted photorealistic human characters, such as The Polar Express,[42][43][44]Beowulf,[45] and A Christmas Carol[46][47] have been criticized as "creepy" and "disconcerting".

The goal of computer animation is not always to emulate live action as closely as possible, so many animated films instead feature characters who are anthropomorphicanimals, legendary creatures and characters, superheroes, or otherwise have non-realistic, cartoon-like proportions.[48] Computer animation can also be tailored to mimic or substitute for other kinds of animation, like traditional stop-motion animation (as shown in Flushed Away or The Lego Movie). Some of the long-standing basic principles of animation, like squash & stretch, call for movement that is not strictly realistic, and such principles still see widespread application in computer animation.[49]


CGI short films have been produced as independent animation since [50] An early example of an animated feature film to incorporate CGI animation was the Japanese anime film Golgo The Professional.[51] The popularity of computer animation (especially in the field of special effects) skyrocketed during the modern era of U.S. animation.[52] The first completely computer-animated movie was Toy Story (), but VeggieTales is the first American fully 3D computer animated series sold directly (made in ); its success inspired other animation series, such as ReBoot in While films like Avatar and The Jungle Book use CGI for the majority of the movie runtime, they still incorporate human actors into the mix.[53]

Animation studios[edit]

Some notable producers of computer-animated feature films include:

  • Animal Logic&#;– Films include Happy Feet (), Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole (), Walking with Dinosaurs () and The Lego Movie ()
  • Aardman Animations &#;– Films include Flushed Away () and Arthur Christmas ()
  • Blue Sky Studios&#;– Films include Ice Age (), Robots (), Horton Hears a Who! (), Rio (), The Peanuts Movie ()
  • DreamWorks Animation&#;– Films include Shrek (), Madagascar (), Over the Hedge (), Kung Fu Panda (), Monsters vs. Aliens (), How to Train Your Dragon (), Rise of the Guardians (), The Croods (), Trolls (), The Boss Baby ()
  • ImageMovers &#;– Films include The Polar Express (), Monster House (), A Christmas Carol (), Mars Needs Moms ()
  • Ilion Animation Studios — Films include Planet 51 (), Mortadelo and Filemon: Mission Implausible () Wonder Park ()
  • Illumination — Films include Despicable Me (), The Lorax (), Minions (), The Secret Life of Pets (), Sing (), The Grinch ()
  • Industrial Light & Magic&#;– Films include Rango () and Strange Magic ()
  • Pacific Data Images&#;– Films include Antz (), Shrek (), Madagascar (), Megamind (), Mr. Peabody and Sherman ()
  • Pixar Animation Studios&#;– Films include Toy Story (), A Bug's Life (), Monsters, Inc. (), Finding Nemo (), The Incredibles (), Cars (), Ratatouille (), WALL-E (), Up (), Inside Out (), The Good Dinosaur (), Coco (), and the upcoming next feature Soul ()
  • Rainmaker Studios&#;– Films include Escape from Planet Earth () and Ratchet & Clank ()
  • Reel FX Animation Studios&#;– Films include Free Birds () and The Book of Life ()
  • Sony Pictures Animation&#;– Films include Open Season (), Surf's Up (), Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs (), The Smurfs (), Hotel Transylvania (), Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2 (), Hotel Transylvania 2 (), The Emoji Movie (), Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse ()
  • Sony Pictures Imageworks &#;– Films include The Angry Birds Movie ()
  • Triggerfish Animation Studios&#;– Films include Zambezia (), Khumba ()
  • Walt Disney Animation Studios&#;– Films include Bolt (), Tangled (), Wreck-It Ralph (), Frozen (), Big Hero 6 (), Zootopia (), Moana (), Ralph Breaks the Internet (), Frozen II ()
  • Warner Animation Group&#;– Films include The Lego Movie (), Storks (), The Lego Batman Movie (), Smallfoot ()
  • Wizart Animation&#;– Films include The Snow Queen (), Sheep and Wolves ()

Web animations[edit]

The popularity of websites that allow members to upload their own movies for others to view has created a growing community of amateur computer animators.[54] With utilities and programs often included free with modern operating systems, many users can make their own animated movies and shorts. Several free and open-source animation software applications exist as well. The ease at which these animations can be distributed has attracted professional animation talent also. Companies such as PowToon and GoAnimate attempt to bridged the gap by giving amateurs access to professional animations as clip art.

The oldest (most backward compatible) web-based animations are in the animated GIF format, which can be uploaded and seen on the web easily.[55] However, the raster graphics format of GIF animations slows the download and frame rate, especially with larger screen sizes. The growing demand for higher quality web-based animations was met by a vector graphics alternative that relied on the use of a plugin. For decades, Flash animations were the most popular format, until the web development community abandoned support for the Flash player plugin. Web browsers on mobile devices and mobile operating systems never fully supported the Flash plugin.

By this time, internet bandwidth and download speeds increased, making raster graphic animations more convenient. Some of the more complex vector graphic animations had a slower frame rate due to complex rendering than some of the raster graphic alternatives. Many of the GIF and Flash animations were already converted to digital video formats, which were compatible with mobile devices and reduced file sizes via video compression technology. However, compatibility was still problematic as some of the popular video formats such as Apple's QuickTime and Microsoft Silverlight required plugins. YouTube, the most popular video viewing website, was also relying on the Flash plugin to deliver digital video in the Flash Video format.

The latest alternatives are HTML5 compatible animations. Technologies such as JavaScript and CSS animations made sequencing the movement of images in HTML5 web pages more convenient. SVG animations offered a vector graphic alternative to the original Flash graphic format, SmartSketch. YouTube offers an HTML5 alternative for digital video. APNG (Animated PNG) offered a raster graphic alternative to animated GIF files that enables multi-level transparency not available in GIFs

Detailed examples and pseudocode[edit]

In 2D computer animation, moving objects are often referred to as "sprites." A sprite is an image that has a location associated with it. The location of the sprite is changed slightly, between each displayed frame, to make the sprite appear to move.[56] The following pseudocode makes a sprite move from left to right:

varint x&#;:= 0, y&#;:= screenHeight / 2; while x < screenWidth drawBackground() drawSpriteAtXY (x, y) // draw on top of the background x&#;:= x + 5 // move to the right

Computer animation uses different techniques to produce animations. Most frequently, sophisticated mathematics is used to manipulate complex three-dimensional polygons, apply "textures", lighting and other effects to the polygons and finally rendering the complete image. A sophisticated graphical user interface may be used to create the animation and arrange its choreography. Another technique called constructive solid geometry defines objects by conducting boolean operations on regular shapes, and has the advantage that animations may be accurately produced at any resolution.

Computer-assisted vs. computer-generated[edit]

To animate means, figuratively, to "give life to". There are two basic methods that animators commonly use to accomplish this.

Computer-assisted animation is usually classed as two-dimensional (2D) animation. Drawings are either hand drawn (pencil to paper) or interactively drawn (on the computer) using different assisting appliances and are positioned into specific software packages. Within the software package, the creator places drawings into different key frames which fundamentally create an outline of the most important movements.[57] The computer then fills in the "in-between frames", a process commonly known as Tweening.[58] Computer-assisted animation employs new technologies to produce content faster than is possible with traditional animation, while still retaining the stylistic elements of traditionally drawn characters or objects.[59]

Examples of films produced using computer-assisted animation are The Little Mermaid, The Rescuers Down Under, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, The Lion King, Pocahontas, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hercules, Mulan, The Road to El Dorado and Tarzan.

Computer-generated animation is known as three-dimensional (3D) animation. Creators design an object or character with an X, a Y and a Z axis. No pencil-to-paper drawings create the way computer-generated animation works. The object or character created will then be taken into a software. Key-framing and tweening are also carried out in computer-generated animation but so are many techniques unrelated to traditional animation. Animators can break physical laws by using mathematical algorithms to cheat mass, force and gravity rulings. Fundamentally, time scale and quality could be said to be a preferred way to produce animation as they are major aspects enhanced by using computer-generated animation. Another positive aspect of CGA is the fact one can create a flock of creatures to act independently when created as a group. An animal's fur can be programmed to wave in the wind and lie flat when it rains instead of separately programming each strand of hair.[59]

A few examples of computer-generated animation movies are Toy Story, Antz, Ice Age, Happy Feet, Despicable Me, Frozen, and Shrek.

See also[edit]



  1. ^Sito , p.&#;
  2. ^Masson , p.&#;
  3. ^Parent , pp.&#;–,
  4. ^Masson , pp.&#;–
  5. ^Sito , pp.&#;69–
  6. ^[1]
  7. ^[2]
  8. ^[3]
  9. ^Masson , p.&#;
  10. ^Masson , pp.&#;–
  11. ^Sito , p.&#;
  12. ^Means
  13. ^Sito , pp.&#;97–
  14. ^Sito , pp.&#;95–
  15. ^Sito , p.&#;
  16. ^Masson , p.&#;
  17. ^Masson , p.&#;
  18. ^ abMasson , p.&#;
  19. ^"Our Story", Pixar, Retrieved on "The Pixar Timeline, to Present". Pixar. Archived from the original on
  20. ^Parent , pp.&#;–
  21. ^Parent , pp.&#;–
  22. ^Parent , pp.&#;–
  23. ^Sito , p.&#;
  24. ^Masson , p.&#;
  25. ^Masson , pp.&#;94–
  26. ^Masson , p.&#;
  27. ^Masson , p.&#;
  28. ^Parent , p.&#;
  29. ^Beane , p.&#;
  30. ^Masson , p.&#;
  31. ^Sito , p.&#;
  32. ^Sito , p.&#;
  33. ^Foundation, Blender. "cipsas.com - Home of the Blender project - Free and Open 3D Creation Software". cipsas.com. Retrieved
  34. ^Masson , pp.&#;–
  35. ^Parke & Waters , p.&#;xi.
  36. ^ abMagnenat Thalmann & Thalmann , p.&#;
  37. ^Pereira & Ebrahimi , p.&#;
  38. ^Pereira & Ebrahimi , pp.&#;60–
  39. ^Paiva, Prada & Picard , pp.&#;24–
  40. ^Masson , pp.&#;–
  41. ^Parent , pp.&#;14–
  42. ^
Источник: [cipsas.com]

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